Why breakthroughs come from outside of the specialty.
In fields of study that become specialized there become a school of thought about how the thing works. In schools the basics concepts are reduced to schematics representing the concept to be taught. Somewhere in the course of study they forget to tell the student “this is just a representation of how it works”, in the real world it is a lot more complicated than is represented in this diagram. We are just showing you this to give you a basic understanding of how we think it works. So separate idea constructs are assigned names and processes, studied as individual themes, and papers get written and published about the concepts as if they real properties of the Atmosphere.
In the case of Meteorology, there are whole fields of studies that take on a life of their own, SOI, PDO, ENSO, Rossby waves, Jet streams, Ionosphere, magnetosphere, solar wind, solar activity, sunspot cycles, weather and climate. Never realizing that they are in reality smoothly interconnected and not just severed parts of a working whole thing, like a live frog before dissection into the neat little parts lying in the tray at the end of class. However the young farmer’s son that plays at the pond all summer, can tell you more about how those frogs live on a day to day basis.